"My Dear Little Welsh Mother" - dadorchuddio hanes yr adeiladwyr heddwch

“My Dear Little Welsh Mother…”

(datgelu adeiladwyr heddwch)

HH caernarfon pow letters.jpg   HH caernarfon pow signatures.jpg

Mae Cymru dros Heddwch yn chwilio am hanesion cudd adeiladwyr heddwch Cymru. Gennych chi y cawn yr hanesion yma a gallant amrywio’n enbyd. Gallant gynnwys pobl nad oeddent yn adnabyddus, na chofnodir mewn unrhyw bapur newydd, na weithredent yn rhinwedd unrhyw swydd, ac na ddisgwylient gydnabyddiaeth o unrhyw fath - pobl a fu wrthi’n ddistaw ac yn ddygn am y rheswm syml eu bod yn credu mewn adeiladu heddwch rhwng pobl. Stori felly gyrhaeddodd swyddfa Cymru dros Heddwch y Gogledd yr wythnos hon.

 

Fe ymddangosodd Anna Jane Evans, fydd yn adnabyddus i nifer am ei gwaith i Cymorth Cristnogol, gyda bocs o amlenni bach taclus o gyfnod yr Ail Ryfel Byd. Esboniodd y bu i rain gael eu trysori gan y teulu fel yr ohebiaeth rhwng y POWs Almaenig a’i thaid a nain. Roedd ei thaid yn uchel iawn ei barch, sef y Parchedig Stephen O Tudor a wasanaethai yng Nghapel Moriah Caernarfon rhwng 1935 a 1962 ac a fu’n gaplan ar garcharorion rhyfel yr ardal yn ystod yr Ail Ryfel Byd. Ond ffocws yr hanes a ddatgelwyd yn y llythyrau yw ‘Mrs Tudor’, neu ‘mam’ i rai, a’i charedigrwydd hynod i’r carcharorion a ddeuai i’w cartref.

 

Byddai Mrs Tudor yn gwahodd y carcharorion rhyfel am brydiau bwyd a chyfle i ymlacio o flaen y tân gyda’i phlant: Gwen, John, Huw ac Elizabeth. Yn amlwg fe ddaeth ei chartref, Tŷ Fry, yn noddfa i’r milwyr ifanc, hwythau’n llawn gofidiau ac ymhell o adref. Daw edmygedd yr hogiau i arweiniad Mrs Tudor yn amlwg yn y llythyrau, ond beth sy’n ddiddorol hefyd yw sut y bu iddi hi, a ‘Miss Williams’ a gyfieithai’r llythyrau, gyfathrebu efo mamau a gwragedd yr hogiau yn yr Almaen. Dengys y ddwy empathi wrth godi ysbryd y gwragedd gan ganmol ymddygiad a moesau’r hogiau. Dysgwn am gynnwys llythyrau Mrs Tudor, o’r ymatebion gwerthfawrogol o’r Almaen a’r rhyddhad a fynegir fod yna groeso cartrefol i’r hogia, yn enwedig dros gyfnod hiraethus y Nadolig. Yn ogystal ceir tystiolaeth yn y llythyrau fod y gwragedd yn dyheu am heddwch i ailgydio yn eu bywydau, gydag un yn siarsio ei gwr i beidio byth eto ymladd yn erbyn pobl glen Gogledd Cymru.

 

Rhannwn y stori yma yn y gobaith y byddwch chithau hefyd wedi’ch ysbrydoli gan yr hanes ac yn barod i chwilio yn eich archifau teuluol i ganfod a oes yno hanesion a all daflu mwy o oleuni ar dreftadaeth heddwch Cymru. Erys llawer o gwestiynau i’w ateb cyn cael y stori gyflawn. Pa mor arferol oedd y cyswllt agos yma mewn rhannau eraill o Gymru? Beth oedd y cymhelliant? Oedd yna wrthwynebiad i gyfeillgarwch y teulu â’r Almaenwyr? Beth yw hanes Miss Margaret Williams, y gyn-athrawes o Ysgol Tanybraich, a fu’n cyfieithu’r ohebiaeth? Pwy oedd y ferch ymysg yr Almaenwyr? A yw disgynyddion yr Almaenwyr wedi clywed am groeso hanesyddol Caernarfon? A yw llythyrau Mrs Tudor i’w canfod yn yr Almaen? Felly bydd mwy o’r hanes i ddod, ond mae’n werth rhannu blas ar y llythyrau cyn oedi mwy:

 

Byddai’r carcharorion yn danfod adroddiadau at Mrs Tudor o’r gwersyll ym Montnewydd:

  • “Last week we had a football match against the RAF of Llandwrog. We won the game with 5:1.” Heinz 28/2/1947

 

Gan y mamau/gwragedd o’r Almaen:

  • “I would like to thank you and your ‘Herr’ husband for all the love that you have shown and are showing to my son … That I am almost passing away with longing for my boy, I need not tell you… I thank you for all the goodness which you have shown my son and to other POWs.” Gerdina Balsters, Emden, 11/11/1947.
  • “I really don’t know how to thank you for your goodness to my son Alfred and for receiving him so affectionately into your home…we are an old couple and one doesn’t know for how long the dear God will let us live… my husband has been ill…he weighs only 94lbs with his clothes on… (our son) is our only hope of happiness in our old age.” Elizabeth & Konrad Clausen, Koblenz, 5/8/47.
  • “My son wrote that he has spent Xmas with you. We thank you with all our hearts for being so good to our boy.” Elizabeth & Konrad Clausen.
  • “I’m glad to know that my husband is in good hands, and that he is not left lonely and forsaken, - also that he has found people who understand him and can help him to live through this difficult time… thanks to your goodness and friendliness, and with God’s help, he can get through this last period of our separation. … It is not pleasant when in these hard times one has to live alone (with her child Dieter). We have indeed lost all, and it is very hard to find a new home again. Everywhere, people dislike seeing us fugitives and only few people have understanding for us.” Clara Miarka, Seemühl 17/8/47.
  • “Today I received your kind letter…I think, you will understand me, when I say you, that I always was afraid about Heinz. But when I received your letter I was much happier. I suppose Heinz told you about me and our two little children….sometimes it looks all very desperately. But I have big hope. I am waiting for Heinz and then we will start our life. We only want piece (sic) to live with our families.” Hertha Freynick, Buchholtz 2/8/47.

 

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Gan y carcharorion wedi dychwelyd i’r Almaen:

  • When I left Bontnewydd on 8 of July I could not know that I knocked on my door on the 21 of August. My wife and Lila (daughter) were very surprised because I came as unexpected as welcome. We couldn’t speak the first minutes. Tears and kisses were the conversation between us. We looked us together in the eyes and tried to read what happened the last 6 ½ years. And I can tell you my wife is a real German wife, she wasn’t in the hands of the Russian soldiers… my wife said always: very good people must live in North Wales, Fritz never again fight against such a good folk!” Fritz Stahn, Glasow, 26/8/1947.
  • “I did not forget all the good you have given me in the short time I have spent in North Wales.” Stefan Bohnert, Haslach, 24/8/1947.
  • “I am still in the PW Transit Camp…I am full of hope once I’ll be together with my parents… Many thanks for your dear letters to my parents who pleased them so much. I talked to everybody about the little country Wales, not England.” Hans-Joachim Schweizer, Berlin-Adlershof (Russian Zone) 21/4/48.
  • “It was very very heavy I got away from Caernarvon, then Caernarvon was my second home and I can say, my dear family Tudor, never did I feel by myself, that I was a stranger, when I was at your house…. Your ever true friend and thankfully, Gunter or George, and say my greetings to all whom I did know in Caernarvon.”  Günther Miarka, 23 PWC Sudbury 17/10/47.

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Bu merch yn westai yno hefyd a dengys ei gwerthfawrogiad drwy lythyru ar ei thaith yn ôl i’r Almaen drwy dde Cymru. Diddorol hefyd clywed am y wraig gyfoethog a gollodd ei mab yn y rhyfel ag sydd eto’n cynnig llety i’r Almaenes ifanc:

  • My Dear Little Welsh Mother, I am so often in Tŷ Fry sitting around the fireplace talking and joking…I thank you with all my heart that you gave me a real home in Wales.” ‘Doris’ Kanning 10/2/1948 Merthyr.
  • “Now I am in Cardiff since yesterday, I am staying with a very rich lady. She lost her husband (illness)... She lost her son in the war three years ago. Now she is quite alone. But dear Mrs Tudor I never found such a home as yours.” ‘Doris’ Kanning 13/2/1948 Cardiff.

 

Bu morwyr o’r Iseldiroedd hefyd yn cael croeso yn y cartref a does dim dwywaith mai hiraeth Cymraeg sy’n amlygu ei hun yn llythyrau Cor druan at Mrs Tudor:

  • My second mother…I shall speak about you and your heartily welcome always” Joop, HMS Glendower 29/10/1945.
  • “I am unhappy I can’t come to Caernarfon to see you for the last time…I send my regards to my brothers, sisters mam and father here in Wales… God bless you mam, from your son Cor.” Cor, HMS Glendower, 20/2/1946.
  • “It is very nice here…but I am missing home in Caernarvon mam, now when I go out I can’t go to mam for supper in Caernarvon.” HMS Valkyrie, Isle of Man, 3/3/1946.

 

Rhaid darllen rhwng y llinellau gyda llawer o gynnwys y llythyrau, ond yn ychwanegiadau ymylol y cyfieithydd, Miss Williams, ceir y darlun mwyaf eglur o sut yr aeth Mrs Tudor ati i sicrhau croeso i’r hogiau a sut yr oedd Miss Williams yn gweithredu i godi hyder a gobaith y gwragedd oedd yn digalonni yn yr Almaen.

 

Sylwadau Miss Williams mewn gohebiaeth rhywbryd cyn 5/8/1947:

  • At wraig Günther:

“We find him serious and God-fearing and you may well be proud of the fine bearing of your husband….Mrs Tudor has taken Günther under her wing and among the pastor’s family he feels himself at ease and at home. ...I am much interested in these War Prisoners in a strange land and have become friends with many of them. … Be of good spirit dear Frau Miarka.”

  • At rieni Alfred:

“I have often been in your beautiful country, the Rhineland included. So I can readily understand the longing of the ‘prisoners’ for their home. In the meantime I will do my best for them and there are many kind people in this town who will do the same. Mrs Tudor is outstandingly good to them and it is through her that families have been found who will invite them to their homes occasionally to tea & supper.”

  • At wraig Heinz:

“Here follows a kind of P.S. As you will have gathered from the handwriting, I am acting the part of translator for Mrs Tudor … some of us have been able to show a friendly regard for our German friends so we hope that they feel as happy among us as can be expected in the circumstances…God grant that in the future, only friendship will exist
between our two nations. The common man in all lands desires only peace and a cozy family life
.”

  • At y Clausens gan ymateb i’w llythyr a ddanfonwyd 5/8/1947:

“I saw your Alfred a few days ago at the Tudors. He looked extremely well and was naturally delighted to be with the Pastor’s family again. When I got there he was settled in a comfy armchair with the Little One (Elizabeth Tudor) in his arms…. He is highly thought of by the family and you have every reason to be proud of such a son.”

 

O’r llythyrau, datgelwyd cyfoeth o hanesion dirdynnol a fyddai’n teilyngu ffilm am Tŷ Fry a’i ymwelwyr. Yn serennu mae Mrs Tudor a Miss Williams, a’u hargyhoeddiad o bwysigrwydd creu pontydd heddwch gyda phobl yr Almaen wedi’r rhyfel. A oedd hyn yn farn gyffredin? Beth oedd teimladau’r dynion a fu’n brwydro? Byddai’n ddiddorol gweld mwy o dystiolaeth o gymunedau eraill er mwyn cymharu.

 

Ond erys cwestiwn creiddiol, nad yw mor hawdd ei ateb, sef sut mae diffinio adeiladwyr heddwch? Y mwyaf yr adnoddau - boed yn bŵer, cyfoeth neu gyhoeddusrwydd - y mwyaf yr effaith a’r adeiladu heddwch posib. Adnoddau cyfyng oedd gan y merched hyn yng nghyfnod yr Ail Ryfel Byd, cartref, teulu, bwyd, tanwydd, pensel a phapur, ac yn achos Miss Williams tair iaith (neu fwy) - ag eto dengys y llythyrau iddynt ddefnyddio’r adnoddau hyn i’r eithaf i hwyluso cymod a heddwch rhwng Cymry ac Almaenwyr. O oedi ar y pwnc o gyfraniad merched, ac ystyried mai prinnach fyth oedd yr adnoddau ar gael iddynt yn y Rhyfel Byd Cyntaf, sylwn mai’r merched yn 1923/4 a gasglodd 400,000 o lofnodion yn y ddeiseb heddwch i’w danfon at ferched America, a hwy  hefyd orymdeithiodd dros heddwch ar draws Gogledd Cymru yn 1926 gyda dim ond baneri ac ambell ymbarél. Mae dadl Dr Elin Jones yn un pwysig iawn: anwybyddwyd rôl merched yn ein hanes am rhy hir o lawer, rhaid ymdrechu i fanylu mwy ar eu cyfraniad. Siawns yw mai yn eu cartrefi, yn eu dyddiaduron a’u llythyrau, y daw llawer o’r hanes yma i’r wyneb.

 

Yn y cyfamser ceir gwahoddiad gan gymuned Caernarfon i ymuno a hwy ar yr Orymdaith Heddwch i gofio gorymdaith heddwch y merched yn 1926. Y dyddiad yw 21ain o Fedi (Ddiwrnod Heddwch Rhyngwladol) yn dechrau o’r Galeri am 2pm, ar hyd y cei heibio’r clwb hwylio a’r ‘South of France’ hyd at y Maes ger y Swyddfa Bost, ble bydd anerchiadau a cherddoriaeth, gan gynnwys Dafydd Iwan.

 

Mae Cymru dros Heddwch yn cynnig cefnogaeth a hyfforddiant i gasglu unrhyw agwedd o dreftadaeth heddwch Cymru dros y 100 mlynedd diwethaf. Medrwch ddanfon amlinelliad o’r hanes ar gyfer blog a chysylltu’r stori a llun ar fap heddwch Cymru. Y bwriad yw bydd yr hanesion yma wedyn yn sail i ymchwil pellach neu yn cael eu haddasu ar gyfer adnoddau addysgol symbylus.

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